A study showing that the foot diagram has a complex structure made up of bones, ligaments, muscles, and tendons. Understanding the structure of the foot is best done by looking at a foot diagram where the anatomy has been labeled.

Foot Regions

Foot Bones can be divided into different regions: anterior, posterior, dorsal, plantar, distal, proximal, medial, and lateral. Another way of talking about foot bones is by dividing them into tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. In this article, we will use this classification for the sake of clarity and simplicity.

There are 33 different joints in the foot. The joints are made up of two bones coming together but they also involve tendons, ligaments, and muscles. There are 28 different bones and more 100 tendons in the foot.

The Tarsal Bones

The tarsal bones are those that are located among the metatarsal bones, the tibia, and the fibula. There are seven tarsal bones:

1. The calcaneus or calcaneum is the heel bone, located between the cuboid and the talus

2. The talus is between the calcaneus (below), the tibia (top), and the fibula (sides)

3. The navicular gets its name for its boat-like shape. The cuneiform bones and the talus surround the navicular

4. The medial cuneiform is roughly in the middle of the foot, at least, if we look at the foot from above

5. The intermediate cuneiform is located between the medial cuneiform and the lateral cuneiform bones

6. The lateral cuneiform (also known as the external cuneiform) is in the front row of all the tarsal bones

7. The cuboid gets its name from looking like a cube. It is surrounded by the calcaneus or calcaneum, the navicular and the metatarsal bones.

The Metatarsal Bones

The metatarsal bones are those that are located and one end of the tarsal bones, between those and the phalanges. There are five metatarsal bones in the human foot:

1. First metatarsal bone

2. Second metatarsal bone

3. Third metatarsal bone

4. Fourth metatarsal bone

5. Fifth metatarsal bone.

The first metatarsal bone is the thickest and shortest of all the metatarsals, while the second metatarsal bone is the longest of them all. Athletes are particularly susceptible to suffer from injuries in the second and fifth metatarsal

The Phalanges

The final group of foot bones is the phalanges. Each foot has 14 different phalanges. The big toe has two phalanges: the proximal phalanx and the distal phalanx. Each of the other toes has the same three phalanges: the proximal phalanx, the middle phalanx, and the distal phalanx.

The proximal phalanx is the phalanx that it is closer to the rest of the foot. Its proximity to the rest of the foot is where it gets its name.  The middle phalanx is between the proximal and the distal phalanges in all toes with the exception of the toe.

Classification

The forefoot is where the five toes, also known as phalanges, are but it is also where the metatarsals are located. Then many tendons, muscles, and ligaments are in place to allow all the necessary movements that we need for both balance and motion. 

Main Feet Conditions

Understanding the location of all the bones, tendons, muscles, and ligaments is best achieved by looking at the foot diagram.  Here are the main feet conditions:

1. Osteoarthritis of the feet: worn out cartilage

2. Gout: painful inflammatory condition

3. Athlete’s foot: fungal infection

4. Rheumatoid arthritis

5. Bunions: bony prominence

6. Achilles tendon injury

7. Diabetic foot infection

8. Ingrown toenail

9. Fallen arches or flat feet

10. Mallet's toes

11. Metatarsalgia

12. Claw Toes

13. Fracture

14. Plantar wart

15. Morton’s neuroma: growth between the third and fourth toes that causes numbness, pain, and burning.