The detection rate and the metabolic behavior of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) are not yet clear. They aimed to investigate the metabolic behavior of SMZL and whether the tumor stage (acc. Ann Arbor) epidemiological (age, gender), histological (Ki-67 index, plasmacytic differentiation) and morphological (splenic diameter maximum) features might be related to 18F-FDG PET/CT results

Fifty-one patients (34 male, 17 female; average age 70 years) with histologically confirmed SMZL who underwent an 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging were included: PET/CT images were analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively (SUVmax, lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio). Splenic uptake was divided as diffuse or focal.

Results

Fifty-one patients (34 male, 17 female; average age 70 years) with histologically confirmed SMZL who underwent an 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging were included: PET/CT images were analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively (SUVmax, lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio). Splenic uptake was divided as diffuse or focal.

Thirty-nine patients (76%) had FDG-avid SMZL (7 with focal splenic lesions and 32 with diffuse splenic uptake), while the remaining 12 had no increased splenic uptake. Among patients with FDG-avid lesions, average SUVmax was 4.3, lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio 2.3, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio 3.

18F-FDG avidity was significantly associated with the Ki-67 index and not correlated with other features. Semiquantitative PET/CT parameters (SUVmax, lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio) did not correlate significantly with any variable. Progression-free survival time was not influenced by FDG avidity of SMZL.

18F-FDG avidity was noted in 76% of SMZL with diffuse splenic uptake as the main pattern of presentation and is correlated with the Ki-67 score only.