The study find that the a new genetic tool called iSuRe-Cre that provides certainty in Cre-inducible genetic modifications; a key technique for understanding gene function. Because gene function in biomedical research relies on the use of Cre-lox technology. Since its introduction in 1994; this technology has revolutionized biomedical ; therefore science because it allows scientists to eliminate or activate the function of any gene in any cell type in the mouse.
Function of any gene
Using this technology; it is possible to investigate the precise role of almost any mouse gene in any cell type; and at a defined time point; all of which are crucial requirements for understanding the function of genes during organ development, physiology and disease.
Cre-Lox technology allows the regulation of gene expression at any time or in any cell type thanks to the ability of the Cre recombinase protein to recognize and recombine lox sites introduced at specific locations in the mouse genome; leading to the deletion of the genes being studied. Despite the major impact of Cre-loxP technology on biomedical research; numerous studies have demonstrated the need for caution in its use.
Regulation of gene expression
The main problem is that often; the Cre activity level is insufficient to fully recombine and eliminate expression of the target gene; generating uncertainty about whether the desired genetic modification has been achieved. gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an organism’s genes. Genetic engineering is different from traditional breeding, where the organism’s genes are manipulated indirectly.
Genetic uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the structure and characteristics of genes directly. Techniques have found some successes in numerous applications. Some examples are in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria; the manufacture of erythro poietin in hamster ovary cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse (cancer mouse) for research.
Techniques of molecular cloning
The term “genetic engineering” was coined in Jack Williamson’s science fiction novel Dragon’s Island, published in 1951, two years before James Watson and Francis Crick showed that DNA could be the medium of transmission of genetic information. Because the Cre-loxP recombination event is invisible; genetic and fluorescent reporters have been developed to track Cre activity so that cells reaching a certain threshold of Cre activity are labeled.
These reporters have become established as essential genetic tools for monitoring any conditional genetic study. However, as study author Macarena Fernández-Chacón points out, many studies have shown that Cre-induced reporter expression can occur even though other genes with loxP sites are not completely eliminated.