All news from Epidemiology

New Light On African Salmonella: Gene Expression Study Shows

Scientists at the University of Liverpool have taken another step forward in understanding the bacteria that are causing a devastating Salmonella epidemic currently killing around 400,000 people each year in sub-Saharan Africa. Published in the journal PLOS Biology and representing five years of work, researchers at the Institute of Integrative Biology have completed one of the largest bacterial comparative gene expression studies to date.

Bullied & Sexually Abused People: Show Harmful Behaviours

People who ever suffered bullying or sexual abuse have a lower quality of life similar to those living with chronic conditions like heart disease, diabetes, depression or severe anxiety, a new study from the University of Adelaide has found. They are also far more likely to display harmful behaviours like smoking dependence and binge eating. The study, published in BMC Public Health, investigated around 3000 South Australians who took part in face-to-face interviews using self-labelling questions to measure the age of onset and duration of bullying and sexual assault and their outcomes during home interviews.

Stress Fracture Prevention

It starts as a persistent and irritating pain in the foot or lower leg, then it gets more intense, maybe with swelling, and soon a runner knows she's being sidelined by one of the most common running injuries: a stress fracture. These tiny cracks in the bone can halt training for months or even end a sports season. Combining information from multiple wearables is better for stress fracture prevention, Vanderbilt University research found.

Malaria Relapse Is Prevented By Single-Dose Drug

The anti-malarial drug tafenoquine (Krintafel, GlaxoSmithKline) reduces relapse risk in patients with Plasmodium vivax, but declines in hemoglobin were noted in some patients, according to data from two phase 3, double-blind, randomized controlled trials. Both studies were published online in the New England Journal of Medicine. Data from the two studies led to FDA approval of the drug last year.

In Bangladesh, Digging Deeper Wells Reduces Arsenic Poisoning

Chronic arsenic poisoning has long inhibited Bangladesh. The South Asian country has spent decades battling natural occurrences of the toxin that can be found in millions of its shallow wells, the cause of an estimated one in every 20 deaths in the country (around 43,000 deaths a year according to the World Health Organization).

The good news is that incidents of contaminated groundwater in wells are reducing. While a study conducted in 2000 showed around 75 per cent of wells (out of 6,000 surveyed) exceeded World Health Organization guidelines of ten micrograms of arsenic per litre, a recent study found that this number has plummeted to only 30 per cent (of the 50,000 surveyed).