All news from Anaesthesiology

Melanoma Divided Into Four subtypes With Different Drug Sensitivities

Researchers have found that melanomas can be divided into four distinct subtypes according to their stages of differentiation. Cell subtypes that de-differentiated -; meaning that they reverted back to a less-mature cell, showed sensitivity to a type of self-inflicted cell death called ferroptosis. Melanoma, a relatively rare but deadly skin cancer, has been shown to switch differentiation states that is, to regress to an earlier stage of development, which can lead it to become resistant to treatment. 

Treatment In Advanced Melanoma Is Changing with The Approval Of New Drugs

The treatment landscape in advanced melanoma is changing dramatically with the approval of new drugs. Vemurafenib was the first approved targeted agent for the treatment of BRAF-mutant advanced melanoma. However, treatment with a BRAF inhibitor is linked with acquired resistance occurring in half of the patients after approximately six months. Combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitor therapy results in extension of the time to resistance, translating into longer overall survival of treated patients.

Role of Phenylephrine In Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

To the best of researchers knowledge, only one clinical study has prospectively evaluated phenylephrine infusion as a therapy for augmenting HPV in hypoxemic patients, reporting that phenylephrine improved oxygenation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The hypothesis was that phenylephrine infusion increased the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) during OLV. 

To Reduce Postoperative Complications After Thoacic Surgery With Anesthesia

A thoracoscopic technique has allowed for the development of fast-track protocols in the thoracic surgery, with shorter hospital lengths of stay and improved outcomes. The perioperative management needs to be optimized accordingly, with the goal of reducing postoperative disorders and speeding recovery times. Premedication performed in the operative room should be given because of the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Inhalation anesthesia, when possible, should be preferred based on protective effects on postoperative lung inflammation.