All news from Anaesthesiology

Female Farmers' Physical Fitness Boosted With An Anti-hookworm Drug

Impoverished female farm workers infected with intestinal parasites known as hookworms saw significant improvements in physical fitness when they were treated with a low-cost deworming drug. The benefits were seen even in those with low-level infections, according to a study co-authored by researchers at Yale and the nonprofit company InnovationsCZ.

Emerging Infectious Diseases in India

Human societies have seen a significant decrease in mortality from infectious diseases over the past century. However, we must still struggle with ongoing pathologies we once thought were under control as well as the new ones that have emerged over the last 30 years. The vast scale of the global epidemics provoked by these viruses forces us to look more closely at the territories where they emerge.

Effectiveness of Gene Therapy For Beta-thalassemia

In a powerful example of bench-to-bedside science showing how observations made in the lab can spark life-altering therapies in clinic, an international team of clinician-investigators has announced that gene therapy for patients with a severe form of the blood disorder beta-thalassemia can be safe and effective.

Association Between Masticatory Muscle Force And Mandibular Shape

According to a study, researchers investigate the forces applied to the mandible by the masticatory muscles, is of considerable importance from clinical, anthropological and evolutionary perspectives. The Purpose of this study is to identify the relation between masticatory muscle force and mandibular shape and to relate variations in specific muscle CSAs to particular aspects of mandibular shape and size variation.

Head CT scans of 382 adults were utilized to measure masseter and temporalis muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) as a surrogate for muscle force and 17 mandibular anthropometric measurements. The association between shape and muscle CSA (controlled for size) was assessed using two-block partial least squares analysis. Correlations were computed between mandibular variables and muscle CSA (all controlled for size).

Carbon dioxide Differences Can Occur In Paediatric Patients Undergoing General Anaesthesia

The researcher demonstrated that negative PaCO2–ETCO2 differences (i.e. ETCO2 reading higher than PaCO2) can occur in pediatric patients undergoing general anesthesia after tracheal intubation with a cuffed tube and mechanical ventilation. The results of this large study (799 patients and 2452 measurements) differ from previous work in this area.

For instance, they found an overall mean arterial to ETCO2 difference of −0.18 kPa, with 71.2% of samples showing a negative difference, compared with Goonasekera et al. who found a mean PaCO2– an ETCO2 difference of +0.66 KPa, with only 22.7% of samples demonstrating a negative PaCO2– ETCO2. Researcher attributes the high proportion of negative values they obtained to an incorrect measurement setting in the apparatus used for gas analysis and capnography.

Investiagtion Of Neural Correlates Of CMR In The Human Auditory Brainstem

The detection and identification of signals in a noisy environment are one of the essential tasks of the auditory system. The mechanism whereby the auditory system separates weak signals from masking noise is a key challenge in auditory neuroscience. Weak signals embedded in fluctuating masker can be perceived more efficiently than similar signals embedded in unmodulated masker. This release from masking is known as comodulation masking release (CMR).

Analysis Of The Yeast ATP Synthase In A Lipid Membrane

The researcher has solved the structure of mitochondrial ATP synthase, an enzyme that makes ATP, adenosine triphosphate, the major energy source of cells. The study was published in the journal Science. Given the importance of ATP synthase in fueling the cell, determining the complete structure of the enzyme has been a scientific holy grail, promising to reveal secrets about the ATP machine that could lead to therapeutic target identification and advance understanding of the metabolic disease and other cellular pathologies.

Investigation Of Building Nanoscale Structures Using Single Molecular Components

Researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) are applying this construction principle to their lab work, with one major difference: The materials they are working with are just a few billionths of a square meter in size. Nanoscale construction is a field of nanotechnology that uses nanomaterials as basic building blocks to create materials with specific features.

To Optimize The Space Travel Efficiency

A study explored in ways to integrate the logistics of space travel by looking at a campaign of lunar missions, spacecraft design, and creating a framework to optimize fuel and other resources. Sending a human into space and doing it efficiently presents a galaxy of challenges. The researcher said it is about finding a balance between time and the amount of fuel getting there fast requires more fuel. If time isn't an issue, slow but efficient low-thrust propulsion might be a better choice.