All news from Anaesthesiology

A Molecular Switch With Two Compounds Reacts In The Same Solution

Researchers have found a molecular switch such that two compounds that would readily react with each other can be in the same solution, separated by a very thin membrane and kept from reacting with each other until a molecular switch is thrown. They showed the movement of a single chemical bond can compromise a membrane made up of more than 500 chemical bonds. Their system uses light as a switch to create a reversible, on-demand molecular control mechanism. The study was published in Nature Chemistry.

An Abnormal Heart Rhythm Can Lead To Higher Risk Of Stroke

A study determined that researchers have found that people whose heart rhythm returns to normal continue to be at high risk of stroke and should continue to be treated. Patients with an abnormal heart rhythm that can leave them at a higher risk of suffering from stroke still need treatment even after their heart rhythm seems to have returned to normal. The study was published in The BMJ

Mechanism Of The Two-Component ?-Helical Pore-Forming Toxin

Researchers have unraveled the mechanism of action for one of these toxins. The findings could help combat associated diseases and advance crop protection. Pore-forming toxins are common bacterial poisons. They attack organisms by introducing holes in cell membranes. YaxAB was shown to be cytotoxic and likely involved in pathogenesis, though the molecular basis for its two-component lytic mechanism remains elusive. Here, they present crystal structures of YaxA and YaxB, together with a cryo-electron microscopy map of the YaxAB complex. 

Diet Might Influence The Risk Of Hearing Loss

A study estimated that Hearing loss affects approximately 48 million Americans. Previous studies have looked at how specific nutrients affect risk, but the relation of overall diet and risk of developing hearing loss was unclear. Some evidence suggests that diet may influence the risk of hearing loss. They examined the relationship between three different diets and risk of developing hearing loss.

An Adverse Event With TKIs Occurs Hypothyroidism

According to a new study, the researcher examined hypothyroidism that occurs as an adverse event with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used to treat cancer is, in fact, associated with significantly improved overall survival and may have important prognostic value. The clinical relevance of these findings is that clinicians should not hesitate to give serial TKI due to concern for the development of thyroid dysfunction, which is readily treatable with hormone replacement and may correlate with improved overall survival. The study was published in Thyroid.

Risks Of Nodal Metastasis And Death On The Vermilion Versus Cutaneous Lip

According to a study, the researcher determined the risk of nodal metastasis is five-fold greater for skin cancer on the vermilion lip versus the cutaneous lip. The study was published in JAMA Dermatology. Researchers compared differences in risks of recurrence, metastasis, and death from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) on the vermilion versus cutaneous lip among 303 patients with 310 primary cSCCs of the lip (138 cutaneous and 172 vermilions) diagnosed between 2000 and 2015 at two academic tertiary care centers.

An Intervention On Opioid Prescribing Intensity Among Emergency Department Providers

 A study showed researchers hypothesized that an intervention asking emergency department (ED) providers to self?identify their opioid prescribing practices. Asking emergency department (ED) providers to self-identify their opioid prescribing practices and then providing them with timely, clinically relevant, individualized, and actionable feedback on their actual opioid prescribing data, significantly decreases future opioid prescribing among providers who underestimate their baseline prescribing. The study was published in Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM).

Little is known about the accuracy of provider self?perception of opioid prescribing. They hypothesized that an intervention asking emergency department (ED) providers to self?identify their opioid prescribing practices compared to group norms and subsequently providing them with their actual prescribing data would alter future prescribing compared to controls.

Evaluation Of The Efficacy And Safety Of DEX Infusion During LC

A study examined that researcher have evaluated the efficacy and safety of DEX infusion during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has sedative, sympatholytic and analgesic effects and might be beneficial if used as an adjuvant to: improve analgesia; modulate hemodynamic responses to intubation and pneumoperitoneum and; reduce the number of opioid-associated adverse events.

ONC201 Destroys Breast Cancer Cells In vitro

TRAIL, a member of the TNF family of ligands, causes caspase-dependent apoptosis through activation of its receptors, death receptor 4 and DR5. ONC201 was originally identified as a small molecule that inhibits both Akt and ERK, resulting in dephosphorylation of Foxo3a and thereby induces TRAIL transcription