All news from Anaesthesiology

Association Of Unloading And Reloading In Spaceflight Affects Spinal Health

A study showed that in flight, trunk muscle atrophy, they may precipitate lumbar curvature loss and reduced spinal stability, but in-flight (ultrasound) and pre- and post-flight (MRI) imaging have yet to detect significant IVD changes. Spinal elongation and back pain are recognized effects of exposure to microgravity, however, spinal health has received relatively little attention. This changed with the report of an increased risk of the post-flight intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation and subsequent identification of spinal pathophysiology in some astronauts post-flight. 

Different Brain Regions Plays A Major Role In Mental Illness

Researchers used brain imaging to identify how patterns of brain connectivity the ability of different brain regions to talk to each other can affect a person's likelihood of developing common forms of mental illness. Individual regions of the brain have to team up to get things done. And like in any team, the key to working together is communication. The study was published in Biological Psychiatry.

New Technique That Accelerates Into Protein Therapies

The research team has combined technologies to develop a new biotech technique that promises to accelerate research into protein therapies. A Northwestern-led synthetic biology research team has combined technologies to develop a new biotech technique that promises to accelerate research into protein therapies that could one day become the next defense against antibiotic-resistant super germs or the next new drug. The study was published in the journal Nature Chemical Biology.

Nitric Oxide Levels Could Improve Heart Function

A new study evaluated that researchers showed that nitric oxide might help commonly used heart drugs maximize their benefits while improving heart function. The most common heart medications may get an assist from nitric oxide circulating in the body. Researchers showed that nitric oxide may help commonly used heart drugs maximize their benefits while improving heart function. In turn, the study found nitric oxide deficiencies could underlie heart failure while tilting drug effects toward more harmful pathways and side effects. The study was published in Molecular Cell.

Visualization Of Human Brain Tissue At The Microscopic Level

Researchers have made a breakthrough in the visualization of human brain tissue at the microscopic level. The study was published in Nature Communications. For understanding the brain function, scientists need to map the nerve cells (neurons) are wired to form circuitries in both healthy and disease states. Traditionally, this was accomplished by thinly slicing brain tissue and tracing the cut nerve fibers over many sections.

Patients Received A Local Anesthetic Before Being Vertebroplasty

According to researchers factors aside from installation of polymethylmethacrylate might have accounted for the observed clinical improvement after vertebroplasty. Older patients with one to three recent painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures who had a vertebroplasty or a sham procedure reported similar pain relief over the following year. These results do not support percutaneous vertebroplasty as standard pain treatment in patients with acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The study was published in BMJ.

Relationship Of SES To Brain Function And Anatomy In Adults

Research has shown that a developing child's brain structure and function can be adversely affected when the child is raised in an environment lacking adequate education, nutrition and access to health care. While the impact of such an environment on children is relatively well understood, a new study from The University of Texas at Dallas examines an effect that is not so clear the relationship of socioeconomic status(SES) to brain function and anatomy in adults. The study was publsihed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"Hair Cells" In The Inner Ear Leads To Hearing Loss

A new research shows that restoring hearing is not just about regenerating the lost outer hair cells. The loss of tiny cells in the inner ear, known as "hair cells," is a leading cause of hearing loss, a public health problem affecting at least one out of three people over the age of 65. Of the two varieties of hair cells, the "outer hair cells" act as micromotors that amplify incoming sound, and the "inner hair cells" act to sense and transmit information about the sound to the brain. The study was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

People Become Overweight/Obese Leads To Diabetes

According to a study, the researcher estimates that more than 27 million people in the United States living with type 2 diabetes. As the population ages and a growing percentage of people become overweight or obese, that number is expected to increase. A potential new approach for treating diabetes by protecting beta cells the cells in the pancreas that produce, store and release the hormone insulin. The study was published in Cell.

An Autoimmune Disorder Leads To Skin Cancer

According to a study, the researcher examined that overactive immune response, which can occur with viral infections, could result in sudden hair graying. The research revealed that a molecule involved in hair pigmentation also controls certain immune system genes. The study explains that skin might lead to rapid graying, but it may provide insights into the skin condition vitiligo, an autoimmune disorder in which the skin loses its color, and melanoma, a cancer of skin pigment cells. The study was published in PLoS Biology.

Safety And Effectiveness Of A Drug Given In The Prehospital Setting

The acute behavioral disturbance is a common problem for emergency medical services. They aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of droperidol compared to midazolam in the prehospital setting. Paramedics are using a new drug to quickly calm violent patients and they have the data to prove it works. Researchers found the sedative, droperidol, was a safer and faster option for paramedics to use compared with the internationally accepted, midazolam. The study was published in the Journal of Prehospital Emergency Care.