All news from Anaesthesiology

HIV and Diabetes: High Rates Increased the Risk of TB for South Africans

Since the 1980s, HIV has contributed to an increase in tuberculosis (TB) cases across the globe. Recently, diabetes has been found to be an important risk factor for TB. In a new study, Yale researchers investigated whether having both HIV and diabetes increases the risk of developing TB among individuals living in rural South Africa. The study, led by Sheela Shenoi and Pranay Sinha, is published in the International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease.

Universal Stroke Awareness Program Launched

In an effort to improve stroke recognition and reduce life-threatening pre-hospital delays worldwide, an international team lead by researchers at Penn Medicine created a universal stroke awareness program, Stroke 112. The team published encouraging results in Stroke about the program's acceptance in a non-English-speaking environment.

CryoEM Captures An Opioid Drug Triggering The BIochemical Signaling

Scientists have used ultra-high-resolution cryo–electron microscopy (cryoEM) to capture the most detailed portrait ever of an opioid drug triggering the biochemical signaling cascade that gives it its power both for good and for ill.  Opioid drugs like morphine and fentanyl are a mainstay of modern pain medicine. The study was published in Nature.

But they also cause constipation, are highly addictive, and can lead to fatal respiratory failure if taken at too high a dose. Scientists have long sought to develop new opioid drugs that can drive away pain without these dangerous side effects, but holes in our understanding of exactly how opioids exert their various effects at a biological level has so far kept this dream at bay.

Investigation Of Volatile Anesthesia Provides Cardioprotection In Patients

The study evaluate the feasibility of the perioperative protocol and investigate whether volatile anesthesia provide cardioprotection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Clinical trials have shown conflicting results regarding the use of volatile anesthesia before or after the ischemic insult in cardiac surgical patients and effect on myocardial injury.

This may be attributable to the failure of continuing volatile agents into the early postoperative period. They hypothesized that combined volatile-based anesthesia and postoperative sedation would decrease the extent of myocardial injury after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) when compared to intravenous, propofol-based approach. 

Enzyme's Motion May Be Developing New Cancer Drugs

Researchers have found Motion is crucial for proper functioning of a kinase enzyme. Not only must the kinase have all needed parts in place, the enzyme must move in the correct manner and at the correct speed to function properly in a cell. Focusing on ways to impede the enzyme's motion may be an avenue for developing new drugs to combat cancer and other diseases.

New Insights To Improve Life On Earth Are Focused On Space

Aerospace startup Space Tango describes itself as "a full-service solution to microgravity research and manufacturing. They design project architectures and experiments specifically for a microgravity,  which is close to zero gravity setting. They want to see how that unique environment affects bacteria, insects, seeds, viruses, pharmaceuticals, materials and more. They learn in space will enable us to make life better on this planet.