All news from Anaesthesiology

Cranial Vault Thickness Variation And Inner Structural Organization

The 'virtual' revisiting of a fossil described as 'the oldest evidence of human evolution in South Africa' shows surprising results. A cranium of a four-million-year-old fossil, that, in 1995 was described as the oldest evidence of human evolution in South Africa, has shown similarities to that of our own when scanned through high-resolution imaging systems. The study was published in the Journal of Human Evolution.

Enzyme Deficiency Causes Neurodegeneration

A new therapeutic approach may one day delay neurodegeneration typical of a disease called mucopolysaccharidoses IIIB (MPS IIIB). Neurodegeneration in this condition results from the abnormal accumulation of essential cellular molecules called mucopolysaccharides. Looking to find alternative therapeutic strategies for this rare genetic disease, a team of researchers investigated whether enhancing the cells' ability to clear accumulation of cellular waste would help eliminate the abnormal storage of mucopolysaccharides.

The study was published in the journal Autophagy, that the sugar trehalose increases cellular waste disposal and improves the neurological symptoms in a mouse model of the disease. MPS IIIB is one of about 50 lysosomal storage disorders characterized by the accumulation of material inside tiny cellular sacs called lysosomes. In the case of MPS IIIB, a mutation on a gene that codes for a lysosomal enzyme that breaks down a cellular material called heparan sulfate renders the enzyme ineffective. 

Intravital Imaging By SLAM Microscopy

A new microscope system can image living tissue in real time and in molecular detail, without any chemicals or dyes. It enables researchers to study concurrent processes within cells and tissue and could give cancer researchers a new tool for tracking tumor progression and physicians new technology for tissue pathology and diagnostics. The researchers detailed the technique, called simultaneous label-free autofluorescence multi-harmonic microscopy(SLAM), in the journal Nature Communications.

Ancient Syphilis Genomes Decoded

Researchers have recovered the first historic genomes from the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis. It was previously not thought possible to recover DNA of this bacterium from ancient samples, so the success of this study opens up the possibility of directly studying the evolution and origin of this re-emerging disease.

Anesthesia Physicians Responsible For Patients Safety During Operation

Anesthesiology is that branch of medicine that is dedicated to total care of a patient undergoing surgery and the relief of pain. Anesthesiologists are the physicians responsible for putting patients to sleep and keeping them safe during an operation. In my limited exposure to anesthesiology as a first-year medical student, the patients trusted the anesthesiologist with their very lives, including protecting their airway and ensuring that blood continued to reach their tissues.

Brain Cancer: Genetically Modified Polio Virus Aids In The Cure

According to researchers, genetically altered poliovirus strains could help some patients of brain cancer. A team of researchers used modified poliovirus strains in small groups of patients who had glioblastoma – a particularly deadly form of brain cancer. In these patients, standard treatments have failed to say the researchers and this novel therapy could help. The results of the study were published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Incidence of Suicide of Palliative Care Among Patients with Lung Cancer

According to a study, researchers determine that Patients with advanced lung cancer have increased the incidence of suicide, which is reduced in association with receipt of palliative care. Researchers examined advanced stage lung cancer patients in the Veteran Affairs (VA) Healthcare System to estimate the incidence of suicide. The correlation between palliative care and suicide as the cause of death was also examined.

Inter-Hospital ICU Transfers Can Be Reduced By ICU Telemedicine

Researchers estimate that ICU telemedicine significantly reduces inter-hospital ICU transfers between Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals. Low-resource ICUs often transfer their sick patients out to other high-resource acute care facilities," Dr. Spyridon Fortis from Iowa City VA Health Care System and University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine told Reuters Health by email. "ICU telemedicine can help those ICUs."

Herpesviruses Plays Role in Alzheimer's Disease, More Evidences

In a large-scale analysis, researchers use data from three different brain banks to suggest that human herpesviruses are more abundant in the brains of Alzheimer's patients and may play a role in regulatory genetic networks that are believed to lead to the disease. This work lends support to the controversial hypothesis that viruses are involved in Alzheimer's disease and offers potential new paths for treatment.

Examination Of Social Determinants May Impact Hearing Loss Use

Hearing loss (HL) is common among older adults and is associated with significant psychosocial, cognitive, and physical sequelae. Hearing aids (HA) can help, but not all individuals with HL use them. Hearing loss seems like one of the great equalizers of old age, striking people of all kinds as their ears gradually lose the ability to pick out sounds or hear certain pitches.