All news from Anaesthesiology

Structure Of Integrins Revealed By Cryo-EM

A study collaborates between three labs at UC San Francisco has resulted in an unprecedented look at a member of a vital and ubiquitous class of proteins called integrins (pronounced "INT-uh-grins"). Integrins are associated with fibrosis, scarring, and stiffening of tissues that is associated with nearly half of all deaths in developed countries, and yet researchers had no high-resolution structural model of the proteins in their active state.

Now, a combination of perseverance, technological achievement and insight have pinned down an elusive moving target. The study was published in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology includes Campbell's work, genetic manipulation, and protein engineering, purification.

An Enzyme Discovered In Neuron Death

Researchers have found that the enzyme histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), normally in the nucleus of cells, is also present in the axons of some neurons. When a degenerative signal is activated, HDAC1 modifies a component of a molecular motor, which then drives a signaling agent down the axon to the neuron’s cell body, killing it.

A biochemistry instructor curious about an enzyme discovered in the damaged neurons of people with multiple sclerosis made a leap toward a potential cure for countless neurodegenerative ills. 

Their paper, “Retrograde degenerative signaling mediated by the p75 neurotrophin receptor requires p150glued deacetylation by axonal HDAC1,” appears online today in the journal Developmental Cell.

Different Kinds Of Human Cells Replace Itself In Human Body

The cells within a human body are myriad, multi-functioned, and completely distinct from one another. Different kinds of human cells replace themselves at different rates, which means the human body is comprised of cells of many different ages. The vast majority of these cells regenerate fairly rapidly, making most cells in a human body much younger than the age of the human itself.

The researcher behind a groundbreaking study that attempted to date the ages of various cells in a human body, Jonas Frisen, famously estimated that the average age of a cell in the human body is between 7 and 10 years old in a pivotal 2005 paper. The study was published in Cell.

Palliative Care Healing Of A Life

The silence was poignant, and powerfully so. Gathered together in a small seminar room, medical students and seasoned physicians alike were considering the case of a dying patient. He was a man in his mid-60s, lying stalwart in his bed, projected into the room on a video screen.

The man had been, at the time of the video’s recording, suffering from terminal metastatic bladder cancer. He was a longtime quadriplegic who was receiving hospice care. He died peacefully before anyone in that seminar room would hear his name. Save for Gary Pasternak, MD, of course, who would bring him to life again and again.

Advanced Trauma Can Be Risk For Anxiety In Adults

Among individuals with head and neck cancer (HNC), those who experienced childhood trauma were more likely to have advanced cancer, to have higher alcohol consumption, and to experience symptoms of anxiety and depression.

The study was published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings indicate that childhood trauma history should be considered during treatment for HNC.

Biology Help Us Prepare For Life in Space

An exhibition at the Science Gallery Dublin explores how humans are preparing to live in the harsh conditions of outer space and how microorganisms might help us do so. Space traveling is closer than many of us think. NASA has plans to send humans to Mars in the 2030s, and Elon Musk seems to have taken on a personal challenge of establishing a city on the red planet. He says the Martian city should reach a million inhabitants within 40 to 100 years.