All news from Bio-Chemistry

Protein Aggregates Encode Stressful Encounters In Individual E. Coli Cells

Protein aggregates have a bad reputation in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but in bacteria, inheritance of aggregates by daughter cells may help protect against the same toxic stresses that triggered them in parental cells. The study was published in the journal PLOS Biology. The aggregates thus serve as a kind of inherited memory, protecting offspring against the challenges experienced by their ancestors.

IACS: Image-Based Cell Sorting Technology, New Invention

Invented over 50 years ago, flow cytometry-based cell sorting has become a widely used tool in biology labs for physically isolating cells based on their global surface marker expression profiles. But now researchers have unveiled the next evolution in this critical process, 'Image-Activated Cell Sorting,' or IACS for short. The study is published in the journal Cell.

Hyperspectral Microscopy Serves Biological Pathology

Spectral unmixing and other image processing techniques applied to hyperspectral data reveal subtle color and texture differences not seen in standard microscopy images, improving pathology of biological samples.

Conventional histopathology relies on stained tissue cell specimens viewed by an optical microscope with transmission illumination. The most common stains hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) render the specimens as purple and pink, depending upon their morphology, structure, and associated chemical composition.

The introduction of fluorescence microscopy techniques has added the ability to examine cell condition and function in addition to structure in research and clinical diagnosis methods such as immunochemistry.

ARRIVE Trial: Daily Aspirin Does not Reduce Risk of First Cardiovascular Event

The role of aspirin in preventing a first heart attack or stroke among people at moderate risk of heart disease remains unclear. At the 2018 European Society of Cardiology meeting, J. Michael Gaziano presented findings from ARRIVE, a randomized, controlled clinical trial of the use of daily aspirin to prevent a first cardiovascular event among more than 12,500 participants considered to be at moderate cardiovascular risk. The team's findings are detailed in a paper published simultaneously in The Lancet.

Intra-Operative Hypotension Is A Risk Factor For Postoperative AKI

Impact of intra-operative fluid and noradrenaline administration on early postoperative renal function after cystectomy and urinary diversion. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially reversible and important contributor to postoperative morbidity and mortality. Its pathophysiology is likely to be multifactorial, with the inflammatory response and peri-operative hypovolaemia playing important pathophysiological roles.

The study was published in the European Journal of Anaesthesiology. Intra-operative hypotension is also a demonstrated independent risk factor for postoperative AKI, presumably through renal hypoperfusion and a subsequent reduction in medullary blood flow.

Indeed, it has been shown that most patients presenting with postoperative AKI have had at least one episode of peri-operative haemodynamic instability. Current evidence also supports a time dependent relationship between the duration of intra-operative hypotension and AKI.

Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1: Ibalizumab Reduces the Viral Load

Ibalizumab significantly reduces viral load in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1, according to results from a single-arm, open-label phase 3 study. "Ibalizumab will provide an additional opportunity to achieve viral suppression for patients who have exhausted most currently available treatment options," Dr. Stanley Lewis from TaiMed Biologics, in Irvine, California reported.

Severe asthma: Insights Yeilds NET results

Of the more than 24 million people in the U.S. who have asthma, 10% have severe asthma—a form of the disease that does not respond to treatment. The immunological mechanisms underlying severe asthma and asthmatic lung inflammation are not well understood.

A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital published this week in Science Immunology models allergic lung inflammation and provides new insights into how asthma develops and progresses, with important implications for the most clinically advanced drugs designed to treat severe asthma.

Outpatient Opioid Prescriptions Increased due to Inpatient Opioid Use and Insufficient Weaning Pre-discharge

Patients who receive an opioid for most of their hospital stay and patients who are still taking an opioid within 12 hours of being discharged from the hospital appear more likely to fill a prescription for opioids within 90 days of leaving the hospital, according to new research.

According to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine scientists who conducted the study, theirs is the first large-scale evaluation of the impact of in-hospital opioid prescribing on post-discharge opioid use.

Life-Threatening Respiratory Disease in Burn Patients: Three factors Aid in Prediction

For the first time, researchers have devised a model to predict burn patients who are most likely to develop life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The prediction model includes three factors: the extent of the patient's inhalation injury, the percentage of the patient's body that was burned and whether the patient had high levels of a blood clotting protein called von Willebrand factor.