All news from Anaesthesiology

Association of Prenatal Exposure to Ambient & Air Pollution With Newborn Thyroid Function

Soot and dust alter thyroid development in fetuses before they are born in smoggy cities, raising concern about health impacts later in life, new USC research shows. It means before a doctor cuts the umbilical cord or a parent hugs a baby or a sibling gazes at the newest member of the family, the caress of air pollution already reached the womb's inner sanctum.

The timing couldn't be worse, as the researchers found that no matter when they checked, thyroid impacts were evident until the final month of gestation. This is one of the few studies to monitor air pollution effects on a developing fetus and the first to track pollution changes month by month on thyroid hormones. The newly published research paper appears in JAMA Network Open.

Increased Number and Activity of a Lateral Subpopulation of Hypothalamic Orexin

A study in cocaine-addicted rats reports long-lasting increases in the number of neurons that produce orexin, a chemical messenger important for sleep and appetite that may be at the root of the addiction. The study was published in Biological Psychiatry.

Restoring the number of orexin neurons to normal, or blocking orexin signaling in the brain, made the rats no longer addicted, suggesting the increased orexin neurons to be essential brain changes that cause the addicted state.

Genetic Information Shared by Dangerous Bacterium, Findings

Bacteria are very sneaky in their efforts to develop resistance to antibiotics. Some strains of bacteria package up the genetic instructions for how they defend themselves and cause disease, and pass this information on to neighbouring, naïve, bacteria – essentially gifting their colleagues with the defences they need to survive against our medical armoury of antibiotics.

Virus Destabilizes the Genome, Mechanism Uncovered

New insights into how Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) induces genome instability and promotes cell proliferation could lead to the development of novel antiviral therapies for KSHV-associated cancers, according to a study published in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Erle Robertson of the University of Pennsylvania, and colleagues.