All news from Anaesthesiology

Effectiveness of New Antibody Therapy in HIV, Clinical Trials

A new clinical trial shows that broadly neutralizing antibodies can suppress HIV for up to four months, far longer than currently available drugs. Though improvements in antiretroviral therapy, HIV is now a manageable condition. To remain healthy, people infected with HIV must therefore adhere to strict medication regimens, which typically involve ingesting pills every day for the rest of their lives.

African Swine Fever Virus Cause No Harm To Humans, Findings

The ASF pathogen is a virus which infects domestic pigs and wild boar and which leads to a severe, often lethal, disease in these animals. It is transferred via direct contact or with excretions from infected animals, or through ticks. The ASF virus is endemic to infected wild animals in Africa, but there have also repeatedly been outbreaks in southern Europe.

Antifungal Agent used in Porphyria Treatment

A large team of researchers from Spain, France and the U.S. has found that a common antifungal agent might be useful as a treatment for a rare type of porphyria. In their paper published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, the group describes screening thousands of compounds for a treatment for congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP)—a rare type of the disease—and what they found.

Tiger Mosquitoes has Major Role in Yellow Fever Virus Transmission

Since December 2016, Brazil has been grappling with its worst yellow fever outbreak for several decades. To date, there have been 2,043 human cases including 676 fatalities, mainly occurring in ten Brazilian states including Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. These two states, the most heavily populated in Brazil, had been free of yellow fever for nearly 70 years. Research demonstrated that the yellow fever virus can be transmitted via Aedes albopictus, the tiger mosquito. This opportunistic species is capable of colonizing both urban and forest areas.

Invasive Lung Cancer Surgery Lead to Long-term Opioid Use, Findings

Patients treated with more-invasive surgical techniques for a type of early-stage lung cancer are more likely to become chronic opioid users than patients treated with minimally invasive surgery, highlighting the need for additional research into how pain management after surgery might be a contributing factor to the opioid addiction crisis, according to a study published in JAMA Oncology

Pluripotent Stem Cells To Grow Human Esophageal Organoids

Scientists have been able to grow human esophageal tissue entirely from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which can form any tissue type in the body. Scientists working to bioengineer the entire human gastrointestinal system in a laboratory now report using pluripotent stem cells to grow human esophageal organoids. The study was published in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

Cholera Outbreaks: Fear and Anger Strikes Again in Zimbabwe

Sixty-year-old Emma Zhakata winces, struggling to hold back tears as she relates how her husband, one of 32 cholera victims in Zimbabwe, died within hours of falling ill. She never suspected her 69-year-old husband, Wonder Zhakata, would die suddenly after complaining that he felt weak and was suffering stomach pain. 

Chaperones Prepare Proteins For Folding By Their Own

A protein's folding patterns help them perform their dedicated tasks. As the real "doers" of the cell, even a tiny alteration in a protein's amino acid backbone can cause misfolding and hinder the protein's functionality or cause disease.

For instance, if tau, a protein that helps stabilize the structure of brain cells, is misfolded, it can form tau-tangles, which are commonly seen in Alzheimer's patients. Scientists seek to better understand protein folding to cure misfolding diseases, but this incredibly complex process requires sophisticated algorithms to identify the folding mechanisms.

They have proposed a new way to identify the most crucial factors for protein folding. They demonstrated the short simulation time of their approach on a small but intriguing protein, GB1 beta-hairpin. The study was published in the Journal of Chemical Physics.