All news from Anaesthesiology

Vitamin A Has No Benefits In Treating Atopic Dermatitis

Topical vitamin A provides no benefit in treating atopic dermatitis, whereas topical vitamin D may actually exacerbate symptoms, according to an evidence-based review. Biologic Treatments for Moderate to Severe Atopic Dermatitis.

Topical vitamin A provides no benefit in treating atopic dermatitis, whereas topical vitamin D may actually exacerbate symptoms, according to an evidence-based review. In contrast, topical formulations of vitamins B, C, and E appear to help the disease.

The study was published in the journal Dermatologic Therapy. They also found that three trace elements magnesium, zinc, and iodine seem to improve atopic dermatitis, due to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects.

New Protocol Effective In Identifying Emergency Department Patients

A relatively new accelerated diagnostic protocol is effective in identifying emergency department patients with acute chest pain who can be safely sent home without being hospitalized or undergoing comprehensive cardiac testing, according to researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.

The study found that use of the HEART Pathway protocol was associated with a 6% reduction in hospitalizations and significant decreases in the median length of hospital stay and use of stress testing and coronary angiography compared to usual care.

These findings demonstrate that the HEART Pathway is a safe and effective way to determine which patients with acute chest pain are low-risk for the acute cardiac syndrome. The study was published in the journal Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

Effect of Foster Care Intervention on Trajectories of Specific Psychopathology Among Children

Many migrant children separated from their parents at the U.S. border, some of them very young, have landed in shelters where they often experience stress, neglect, and minimal social and cognitive stimulation.

The latest findings of the long-running Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), involving children in Romanian orphanages, tells a cautionary tale about the psychiatric and social risks of long-term deprivation and separation from parents.

BEIP has shown that children reared in very stark institutional settings, with severe social deprivation and neglect, are at risk for cognitive problems, depression, anxiety, disruptive behavior, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

But BEIP has also shown that placing children with quality foster families can mitigate some of these effects if it's done early. The study was published this week by JAMA Psychiatry,

A Fully Protected Hydrogenase/Polymer-Based Bioanode For High-Performance Hydrogen

Researchers have developed a new mechanism to protect enzymes from oxygen as biocatalysts in fuel cells. The enzymes, known as hydrogenases, are just as efficient as precious metal catalysts, but unstable when they come into contact with oxygen.

They are therefore not yet suitable for technological applications. The new protective mechanism is based on oxygen-consuming enzymes that draw their energy from sugar. The study was published in the journal Nature Communications.

Fast Detection Strategy in Detecting Type of Virus Acquired by Patients

Even tiny amounts of viruses can have disastrous consequences. RNA identification can reveal the type of virus present. A fast and sensitive technique based on optical detection has now been outlined in the journal Angewandte Chemie. Scientists from Germany and Finland have demonstrated the binding of an RNA target to a probe made of gold nanorods and a DNA origami structure. Chirality switches triggered by binding can be measured by circular dichroism spectroscopy.

Promising Allergy Vaccine for Hay Fever Developed

Using sugar molecules researchers from the University of Copenhagen have developed a new vaccine for hay fever that may reduce treatment times and increase the effectiveness of treatments. The vaccine, which is still at the earliest research stage, has been tested on mice. The method can potentially also be used to develop different forms of vaccines, for example, vaccines for autoimmune disorders.

Heart-Muscle Cells Grow Up

Scientists have been trying to replace damaged heart tissue using lab-made heart-muscle cells, either injected or in patch form. But the resulting muscle doesn't work very well because the cells are stuck in an immature stage. Using a novel CRISPR/Cas9 technique, a new study finds a master gene, that's required for the cells to become fully fledged, contractile adult cells.

Scientists around the world have been trying to replace damaged heart tissue using lab-made heart-muscle cells (cardiomyocytes), either injecting them into the heart or applying patches laced with the cells. But results to date have been underwhelming. The study was published in Nature Communications.

Smarter Strategies To Treat Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of irregular heartbeat, or cardiac arrhythmia, affecting 2-3 % of the European population and as many as one in 10 people over the age of 80. Its prevalence is expected to double or triple in the next few decades as the population ages, significantly increasing the burden on healthcare systems.

The EU-funded CATCH ME project is addressing that challenge by providing innovative digital tools to enhance clinical practice, and by conducting groundbreaking research into the mechanisms and effects of atrial fibrillation in order to improve treatment.