All news from Radiology/ Radiotherapy

New edition of Red Journal focuses on roles of imaging in radiation oncology

A new special edition of the International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics focuses on the roles of imaging in radiation oncology. The collection explores topics such as improving accuracy with patient positioning, defining radiation therapy volumes using imaging, imaging of functional biomarkers, the role of imaging in post-treatment care, machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Photoacoustic Imaging Help Detect Ovarian Tumors

Ovarian cancer claims the lives of more than 14,000 in the U.S. each year, ranking fifth among cancer deaths in women. A multidisciplinary team at Washington University in St. Louis has found an innovative way to use sound and light, or photoacoustic, imaging to diagnose ovarian tumors, which may lead to a promising new diagnostic imaging technique to improve current standard of care for patients with ovarian cancer.

Precision Neuroengineering: Reproduction of Complex Brain-like Functions In Vitro Enabled

One of the most important and surprising traits of the brain is its ability to dynamically reconfigure the connections to process and respond properly to stimuli. Researchers from Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and the University of Barcelona, using neuroengineering tools, have created in vitro neural circuits that reproduce the capacity of segregation and integration of brain circuits and which allow researchers to understand the keys of dynamic reconfiguration. The study has been published in Science Advances.

Norovirus Outbreaks Guide Efforts to Develop Vaccines

Outbreaks of norovirus in health care settings and outbreaks caused by a particular genotype of the virus are most likely to make people seriously ill, according to a new study in The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Based on an analysis of nearly 3,800 US outbreaks from 2009 to 2016, the research confirms several factors that can make norovirus outbreaks more severe and may help guide efforts to develop a vaccine to prevent this highly contagious disease.

In-Hospital Mortality Higher In Drug-Resistant Infections Patients

In one of the largest studies to measure the burden of antibiotic resistance in a low- or middle-income country, researchers at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy report that in-hospital mortality is significantly higher among patients infected with multi-drug resistant (MDR) or extensively drug resistant (XDR) pathogens including Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coliKlebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii.

Findings: Nutrient-Recycling Microbes May Feel the Heat

While microbial communities are the engines driving the breakdown of dead plants and animals, little is known about whether they are equipped to handle big changes in climate. In a new study, researchers examine what happens after microbial communities move into new climate conditions. The study is a first step toward understanding the vulnerability of these ecosystems to climate change.