All news from Nephrology

XRF: 3D Chemical Maps of Single Bacteria

Researchers used ultrabright x-rays to generate 3D nanoscale maps of a single bacteria's chemical composition with unparalleled spatial resolution. Scientists at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) have used ultrabright x-rays to image single bacteria with higher spatial resolution than ever before. Their work, published in Scientific Reports, demonstrates an x-ray imaging technique, called x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRF), as an effective approach to produce 3-D images of small biological samples.

Pilot Disorientation Prevented by Strong Ability to Detect and Perceive Motion

A new study led by researchers at Massachusetts Eye and Ear found that good performance on a piloting task was associated with lower vestibular thresholds, which represent stronger ability to sense and perceive information about motion, balance and spatial orientation. Published online today in the  Journal of Neurophysiology, the findings suggest that astronauts or pilots with higher vestibular thresholds are more likely to become disoriented during flight, especially in situations when gravity is less than that on Earth-such as on the Moon.

Echidna Forelimb Model Shed Light on Mammal Evolution

These days, mammals can use their forelimbs to swim, jump, fly, climb, dig, and just about everything in between, but the question of how all that diversity evolved has remained a vexing one for scientists. To help answer it, Harvard researchers are turning to one of the most unusual mammals around – echidnas. These sprawling, egg-laying mammals have many anatomical features in common with earlier mammal ancestors, and so can help bridge the gap between extinct and other modern-day mammals.