Nerve cells stripped of their insulation can no longer carry vital information, leading to the numbness, weakness and vision problems often associated with multiple sclerosis. A new study shows an overlooked source may be able to replace that lost insulation and provide a new way to treat diseases like MS
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Myriad biological and societal factors can impact the occurrence and accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for children of African descent – including preterm birth, exposure to toxins during gestation and lower socioeconomic status – and can complicate these children's access to effective treatments, according to an invited commentary published in the November 2018 edition of American Journal of Kidney Diseases
Patients with a certain drug-resistant urinary tract infection were more likely to have a relapse of their infection within a week than those with non-resistant infections and were more likely to be prescribed an incorrect antibiotic according to a study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America
In a small study, researchers in North Carolina found lead contamination in spices, herbal remedies and ceremonial powders in the homes of children with elevated blood lead levels, according to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
A team of researchers from the U.S., China, and Taiwan has found some rare instances of fathers passing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to their offspring. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes how they came across one case, and then found it in others
A new study has found that babies in the womb who are exposed to medications that target neurotransmitters, including antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs, are at no risk of developing autism than babies who are not exposed to these drugs
The romaine lettuce E. coli scare is over, but it's taken consumers a while to toss the vitamin-rich leafy greens in a salad again. That's a concern for everyone up and down the food supply chain, from growers to grocers. So the food industry is turning to a new technology to help quash the spread of food-borne illness: blockchain.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening disease transmitted by the bite of a sand fly. Between 3,700 to 7,400 people in Ethiopia are infected annually, particularly in the northern, tropical regions with favorable climate and environment to sand fly vectors. A study suggests that transitory populations in Ethiopia may be particularly vulnerable to acquisition of and death from VL infections.
Heterotrimeric G proteins are important in G protein-coupled receptor signaling, which plays many roles in the detection of various environmental stimuli, including hormones, neurotransmitters, light, smells, and chemical signals.
G protein functions are regulated by interactions with Gip1, a protein that sequesters G proteins to block signaling processes. Many studies have attempted to understand the mechanism for this interaction between G proteins and Gip1; none have provided a clear explanation, until now.
It takes a lot of cells to make a human brain. The organ houses not only an enormous quantity of neurons (tens of billions), but also an impressive diversity of neuron types. In recent years, scientists have been developing inventories of these cell classes–information that will be essential for understanding how the brain works. Contributing to this effort, a new study from Rockefeller scientists describes a novel methodology for characterizing neurons and their gene expression patterns with unmatched precision.
Space – with its bulky spacesuits and microgravity – does not seem like a good place for sports. Over the years, however, astronauts have found time to play.
Columbia neuroscientists have discovered why mitochondria, tiny power generators that keep our cells healthy, are often strangely shaped inside the brain. Mitochondria, which exist in the thousands in each of our body's 37 trillion cells, usually look like long interconnected tubes.
But inside brain cells called neurons, they adopted two different shapes depending on their location within the cell: that same elongated, tubular shape and a substantially smaller, almost spherical shape, that more closely resembles golf balls. In this study, researchers have identified the mechanism responsible for these differences in mitochondrial shape – uncovering key insight into the relationship between mitochondrial shape and their function.