All news from Neurology

Myriad Biological, Societal Factors That Impact CKD Severity For Children of African Descent

Myriad biological and societal factors can impact the occurrence and accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for children of African descent – including preterm birth, exposure to toxins during gestation and lower socioeconomic status – and can complicate these children's access to effective treatments, according to an invited commentary published in the November 2018 edition of American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Romaine Lettuce E. coli and Other Outbreaks

The romaine lettuce E. coli scare is over, but it's taken consumers a while to toss the vitamin-rich leafy greens in a salad again.  That's a concern for everyone up and down the food supply chain, from growers to grocers. So the food industry is turning to a new technology to help quash the spread of food-borne illness: blockchain.

Visceral Leishmaniasis: Prevalence More among Mobile Workers in North Ethiopia

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening disease transmitted by the bite of a sand fly. Between 3,700 to 7,400 people in Ethiopia are infected annually, particularly in the northern, tropical regions with favorable climate and environment to sand fly vectors. A study suggests that transitory populations in Ethiopia may be particularly vulnerable to acquisition of and death from VL infections.

Mechanism of Gip1 Interaction with G Proteins, More Insights

Heterotrimeric G proteins are important in G protein-coupled receptor signaling, which plays many roles in the detection of various environmental stimuli, including hormones, neurotransmitters, light, smells, and chemical signals.

G protein functions are regulated by interactions with Gip1, a protein that sequesters G proteins to block signaling processes. Many studies have attempted to understand the mechanism for this interaction between G proteins and Gip1; none have provided a clear explanation, until now.

Novel Methodology Eases Characterizing and Better Understandings of Brain Disease

It takes a lot of cells to make a human brain. The organ houses not only an enormous quantity of neurons (tens of billions), but also an impressive diversity of neuron types. In recent years, scientists have been developing inventories of these cell classes–information that will be essential for understanding how the brain works. Contributing to this effort, a new study from Rockefeller scientists describes a novel methodology for characterizing neurons and their gene expression patterns with unmatched precision.

In Brain, Mitochondria are Strangely Shaped: Study Findings

Columbia neuroscientists have discovered why mitochondria, tiny power generators that keep our cells healthy, are often strangely shaped inside the brain. Mitochondria, which exist in the thousands in each of our body's 37 trillion cells, usually look like long interconnected tubes.

But inside brain cells called neurons, they adopted two different shapes depending on their location within the cell: that same elongated, tubular shape and a substantially smaller, almost spherical shape, that more closely resembles golf balls. In this study, researchers have identified the mechanism responsible for these differences in mitochondrial shape – uncovering key insight into the relationship between mitochondrial shape and their function.