All news from Transfusion Medicine

New Human Brain Cell Discovered

Researchers have identified a new brain cell thought to be unique to humans found in part of the brain linked to consciousness. Much of the human brain remains a mystery to scientists. It’s the reason we sit at the top of the food chain, but the question of what makes our brains different to other animals remains a somewhat elusive one for neuroscientists. The study published in the journal Nature Neuroscience identified a new and mysterious type of human brain cell.

HIV infection: Antibody can Block B cells from Fighting Pathogens, New Mechanism

For the first time, scientists have shown that in certain people living with HIV, a type of antibody called immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) stops the immune system's B cells from doing their normal job of fighting pathogens. This phenomenon appears to be one way the body tries to reduce the potentially damaging effects of immune-system hyperactivity caused by the presence of HIV, according to the investigators, but in so doing, it also impairs normal immune function.

Protein Aggregates Encode Stressful Encounters In Individual E. Coli Cells

Protein aggregates have a bad reputation in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but in bacteria, inheritance of aggregates by daughter cells may help protect against the same toxic stresses that triggered them in parental cells. The study was published in the journal PLOS Biology. The aggregates thus serve as a kind of inherited memory, protecting offspring against the challenges experienced by their ancestors.

IACS: Image-Based Cell Sorting Technology, New Invention

Invented over 50 years ago, flow cytometry-based cell sorting has become a widely used tool in biology labs for physically isolating cells based on their global surface marker expression profiles. But now researchers have unveiled the next evolution in this critical process, 'Image-Activated Cell Sorting,' or IACS for short. The study is published in the journal Cell.

Hyperspectral Microscopy Serves Biological Pathology

Spectral unmixing and other image processing techniques applied to hyperspectral data reveal subtle color and texture differences not seen in standard microscopy images, improving pathology of biological samples.

Conventional histopathology relies on stained tissue cell specimens viewed by an optical microscope with transmission illumination. The most common stains hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) render the specimens as purple and pink, depending upon their morphology, structure, and associated chemical composition.

The introduction of fluorescence microscopy techniques has added the ability to examine cell condition and function in addition to structure in research and clinical diagnosis methods such as immunochemistry.

ARRIVE Trial: Daily Aspirin Does not Reduce Risk of First Cardiovascular Event

The role of aspirin in preventing a first heart attack or stroke among people at moderate risk of heart disease remains unclear. At the 2018 European Society of Cardiology meeting, J. Michael Gaziano presented findings from ARRIVE, a randomized, controlled clinical trial of the use of daily aspirin to prevent a first cardiovascular event among more than 12,500 participants considered to be at moderate cardiovascular risk. The team's findings are detailed in a paper published simultaneously in The Lancet.