All news from Anaesthesiology

Aortic Valve Endocarditis: A standardized Approach For Treatment

Guidelines support the use of both homografts and stentless bioprostheses in aortic valve endocarditis with paravalvular abscess formation. The choice of prosthesis depends on patient characteristics, technical considerations, and surgeon preferences.

In this illustrated series of sixteen patients with aortic valve endocarditis and complicating paravalvular abscess formation, researchers show that the use of stentless bioprostheses provides a more standardized surgical procedure that consists of thorough debridement, root replacement with reimplantation of the coronary arteries, and treatment of accompanying pathologies.

Pain Management Without Risk of Addiction, New Finding

Researchers at the University of Michigan have engineered a new compound that animal tests suggest could offer the pain-relieving properties of opioids such as morphine and oxycodone without the risk of addiction. With more than 100 Americans dying from opioid overdoses every day, there is an urgent need for drugs that offer strong pain-relieving properties without leading to addiction.

Anti-Alcoholism Drug Tested in Animal Models

Scientists at The University of Texas at Austin have successfully tested in animals a drug that, they say, may one day help block the withdrawal symptoms and cravings that incessantly coax people with alcoholism to drink. If eventually brought to market, it could help the more than 15 million Americans, and many more around the world who suffer from alcoholism stay sober.

Timing of Antibiotics: Vital Criteria for Surviving Sepsis

Sepsis is a common, life-threatening organ dysfunction driven by a dysregulated host response to infection. Outcomes have improved over the years in line with a focus on intravenous fluids, appropriate antimicrobials, and other supportive measures, but for septic shock, mortality remains at 30% to 50%.

The 2017 Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines endorse a focus on the rapidity of treatment once sepsis has been identified, with a strong recommendation for the administration of antimicrobial drugs within 1 hour; however, the quality of the supporting evidence is evaluated as moderate.

Detection of Breast Lymphedema

A new study suggests testing for small changes in the flow of lymph fluids after breast cancer surgery can spot the start of a painful swelling known as lymphedema before it becomes hard to treat.

Unsafe Feces Disposal of Children in Rural Bangladesh

This study, among households with latrine access in rural Bangladesh, aimed to: (1) determine household characteristics associated with reported unsafe disposal of young children’s feces and observed human feces within the compound, (2) determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of reported child feces disposal practices compared to observed presence of human feces in the domestic environment, and (3) assess the association between unsafe child feces disposal and (i) fly presence and (ii) diarrhea among children <3 years living in the household.

Health Ministry Eases up on Stem Cell Therapy Regulation

The Indian Council of Medical Research has objected to amendments proposed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 on the regulation of stem cells procedures.

The amendments seek to exclude certain kinds of processed stem cells, called minimally manipulated stem cells, from being defined as new drugs. Such an exclusion will man that these cells will not have to be tested in clinical trials for efficacy and safety before they receive market approval. If passed, these amendments may legitimize the use of unproven stem cell therapies in India. 

Baseball Pitchers: Limiting Throws Helps to Prevent Fatigue and Injuries

For high school baseball pitchers, limiting throws during a game helps to prevent fatigue and injuries. But nearly half the number of pitches—ones thrown during warm-ups and in the bullpen—are typically not counted, adding significantly to a pitcher's risk of injury, new findings by University of Florida Health researchers show.