NOTICIAS DIARIAS

Highlights

Transfusion medicine

Enzyme Disorder Offers New Clues About Fibrotic Conditions

The researches find that the inherited disorders teach scientists about more common health problems like fibrosis? Plenty, based on research led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists that appears today in the journal Science Advances. The investigators have discovered an association between a deficiency in the enzyme neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) and the build-up of connective tissue (fibrosis) in organs such as the muscle, kidney, liver; heart and lungs. Fibrosis includes life-threatening conditions such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
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Diagnosis Of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis

Diagnosis Of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis

As visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis in human; and is potentially fatal if not diagnosing and treating. Accurate and timely diagnosis of the tropic disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the pillars for reducing VL deaths.
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Medical genetics

Overturned Using DNA, Family Tree Evidence

The researches find that the a decades-old murder he did not commit, using evidence based on DNA and a genetic family tree, the first such result using a revolutionary investigative technique. Christopher Tapp, 43, had served 20 of his 30-year sentence for the 1996 rape and murder of Angie Dodge. On Wednesday; a court in the state of Idaho completely overturned his conviction based on evidence found with "genetic genealogy" the technique used to identify the suspected "Golden State Killer" by making DNA matches with his distant relatives.
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Vaccination Against Infectious Disease

Vaccination Against Infectious Disease

As vaccination has become a principal public health response to the growing number of contagious diseases that infect the worlds’ population. Following the highly-publicized 2014 outbreak of Ebola in Africa and anticipating the possibility of a future Ebola outbreak in the United States.
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General medicine

Micro-Ribonucleic Acid In Milk: Health Risk Very Unlikely

The researchers find that the Ribonucleic acid (RNA) occurs in animal and plant cells and has many biological functions. RNA plays a central role in the reading of genetic material, thereby ensuring that important substances are produced for the cells. Among other things, it also ensures the formation of the proteins needed by the cells. There are different types of RNA with different functions. One type is micro-RNA (miRNA), and its job is to regulate numerous processes in a cell.
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Older Patients Associated With Inability To Return Home

Older patients have a different physiology and unique set of needs that may make them more vulnerable to complications following a surgical procedure. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Geriatric Surgery Pilot Project has, for the first time, identified four factors in older patients that are associate with an inability to return home after an operation. The NSQIP Geriatric Surgery Pilot Project is unique in that it is the only specifically define data set focus on outcomes for older surgical patients. The older patients In presenting study results at the ACS Quality and Safety Conference 2019; so concluding today in Washington, DC, researchers report on geriatric-specific condition; so among Geriatric Pilot Project patients that were with not living at home 30 days after surgery. This information can help surgeons advise patients about; so the possible effects of a surgical procedure on their lifestyle as well as their clinical outcomes before an operation. It also may guide hospital quality improvement programs to address pre and postoperative conditions; so that may keep elderly surgical patients from returning home soon afterward. "When surgeons speak with older patients about the decision to operate,  discuss complication rates and the risk of mortality. They don't usually talk about whether; so they will have the independence they had beforehand. This information should help us make better preoperative decisions with our patients; which by allowing us to tell them about the impact a surgical procedure will have on their way of life," said study coauthor Ronnie Rosenthal, MD, FACS, co-principal investigator of the ACS-led Coalition for Quality in Geriatric Surgery (CQGS) and professor of surgery and geriatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Improve patient function "Hospitals may implement protocols that improve patient function or prevent postoperative problems; so that make it less likely for a patient to return home," said study co-author Lindsey Zhang, MD, MS, John A. Hartford Foundation James C. Thompson Clinical Scholar in Residence at ACS, and a general surgery resident at the University of Chicago Medical Center. The researchers look at 3,696 patients in the NSQIP Geriatric Surgery Pilot registry; who who had inpatient procedures between 2015 and 2017 and whose living location 30 days after surgery was know. Eighteen percent of these patients were still living in a care facility 30 days after surgical treatment. The four characteristics identify among these older patients were: a history of a fall within the past year, preoperative malnutrition as define by more than 10% of unintentional weight loss; so postoperative delirium, or a new or worsening pressure ulcer after surgery. They can't say for sure, but these results provide strong evidence to say it's worth the effort for a hospital to address these issues," Dr. Zhang said. On July 19, the ACS introduce the Geriatric Surgery Verification (GSV) Program by releasing the GSV standards for geriatric surgical care for hospitals to review prior to enrolling in this new surgical quality improvement program in late October. These standards address many key factors in geriatric surgery, including those that may delay an older patient's return home postoperatively.

Study Shows Type Of Delivery Affect Twins’ Psychological Development

A research team of the University of Malaga (UMA) in the area of Medicine and Psychology analyzed; for the first time the effect of the type of delivery on twins' psychological development and intelligence; demonstrating that cesarean section carries an independent risk in these multiple births. "Twins are very vulnerable, since their birth frequently ends prematurely; and they often present pregnancy and labor complications", says Professor of Gynecology of the UMA Ernesto González Mesa, who; based on this study, adds the possible difficulties that may derive from cesarean section, very common in multiple births. They have verified that cesarean section becomes a risk factor to development. This is why gynecologists firmly believe in vaginal delivery benefits; and we defend the use of this surgical intervention only as an option when problems arise." Ernesto González Mesa, Professor of Gynecology, UMA Twins were born But this study, published in the scientific journal Frontiers in Psychology; finally comprised a total of 160 twins who were born in Hospital Materno-Infantil in Málaga in the year 2005; there were 7000 births in this period; and almost 300 were multiple births. From the sample of all twins, 55 percent were born by vaginal delivery and 45 % by cesarean delivery. In a first stage of the study, the participating children's intelligence and neuropsychological; and psycho-pedagogical development were tested, which results were compared, in a second stage, with information on obstetric and perinatal variables; such as type of delivery, its problems, maternal age or newborn weight, among others. Lower intellectual level "When comparing all data, we found out that those children that had a lower intellectual level; and cognitive development were born by cesarean delivery", explains María José González Valenzuela; Professor from the Evolutive Psychology and Education Department and main researcher of the study. The expert asserts that, apart from early diagnosis, this study seeks intervention through activities; at school and primary health care centers. In this regard, Counselor Olga Cazorla Granados, co-author of this study; adds that there is an increased tendency in educational environments to search for neurological factors to explain difficulties in psychological development. However, addressing the major reading, writing and calculating difficulties that twins often have; and identifying benefits of vaginal delivery as against cesarean section, for example, the neurological effects that children's intestinal flora; different in each type of delivery, may give rise to, are other future lines to progress in this study, in which Professor Dolores López Montiel; from the Department of Psychobiology and Behavioral Science Methodology, has also participated.

Superior Detection Of Blood Residues For Forensics

The researches find that the new chip device that offers superior identification of miniscule blood residues for forensic applications. Criminologists use luminol to identify microscopic blood drops, as well as low hydrogen peroxide concentrations, proteins and DNA. These are all invisible to the naked eye but become visible through a chemical reaction known as "chemiluminescence." Detecting biological residues using this method; is cost effective and advantageous since the detect signal does not depend on an external light source. Miniscule blood residues The BGU microfluidic chip not only increases the chemiluminescent intensity several fold; but also prolongs the glow time of luminol, enabling the detection of much smaller blood samples in a forensic scene. The chip device was developed by BGU Prof. Alina Karabchevsky; head of BGU's Light-on-a-Chip Group; a member of the BGU Unit of Electro-Optical Engineering and the Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology. The innovation combines the use of luminol with gold or silver nano spheres in a specially designed microfluidic device that increases the detection limit by amplifying chemiluminescent light emission and facilitating imaging in the chip. "Our findings open the door to new integrated microfluidic chips;" said Prof. Karabchevsky. "Practical implementation of this discovered effect will include further superior chemiluminescence-based sensors for forensic science, research in biology and chemistry; and no-source opto-chemical lasers. Identifying trace quantities of blood can increase the efficiency and accuracy of a forensic investigation of a crime scene but requires more sensitive detectors than those that are currently available. We are looking for partners to further develop this promising patented invention. Trace quantities of blood Netta Cohen, chief executive officer, BGN Technologies tests for the presence of haem using phenolphthalein and tetra methylbenzidine combined with thin layer chromatography. The sample is next analyse for blood protein using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Positive results for both steps of the procedure confirm the presence of blood. The importance of control samples to test for interfering environmental constituents is emphasize. Results of experiments designed to simulate the burial conditions of blood residues on artifacts are described. These indicate that the haem component of blood is relatively stable but the protein undergoes some degradation. This suggests that the detection of blood on artifacts may be difficult but it is feasible. researchers have developed a new chip device that offers superior identification of miniscule blood residues for forensic applications. Criminologists use luminol to identify microscopic blood drops, as well as low hydrogen peroxide concentrations, proteins and DNA. These are all invisible to the naked eye but become visible through a chemical reaction known as "chemiluminescence."

Using e-cigarettes May Help Smokers Quit Regular Cigarettes

The study providing critical population-level evidence demonstrating; that using e-cigarettes daily helps U.S. smokers to quit smoking combustible (i.e. regular) cigarettes. The first longitudinal data about the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for cessation from a survey that is representative of the U.S. population. As the MGH team analyzed data from the first three years of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study; a survey representative of the U.S. adult population that interviews the same individuals each year. The survey allowed the researchers to measure an individual's change in tobacco use over time. The e-cigarettes smokers Using data from more than 8,000 adult smokers, the investigators measured how likely a smoker was to quit smoking and stay quit, comparing daily and non daily e-cigarette users with those who smoked only regular cigarettes. This finding suggests that smokers who use e-cigarettes to quit smoking need to use them regularly every day for these products to be most helpful. They found that smokers who used e-cigarettes every day; comparing to e-cigarette non-users; were more likely to quit combustible cigarettes within one year and to stay quit for at least another year. They also found that smokers who used e-cigarettes were no more likely to relapse back to smoking regular cigarettes than smokers not using e-cigarettes. Smoking combustible cigarettes As 3.6% of smokers were current daily e-cigarette users; 18% were current non daily e-cigarette users, and 78% did not use e-cigarette at all. By the second and third years of data gathering, daily e-cigarette users reported; a higher rate of prolonged abstinence from cigarette smoking (11%) than non-users. E-cigarettes contain nicotine but do not burn tobacco; which is responsible for many of the health problems associated with smoking combustible cigarettes. For a smoker, e-cigarette are less harmful to their health than continuing to smoke cigarettes. But e-cigarette have becoming popular so quickly; that many questions remain about how they can best be using to help smokers to quit and minimize any harm.

College Spending Habits May Predict When ‘Adulting’ Starts

How well you manage your money in college may determine when you will ultimately achieve "adult identity," according to a new study led by the University of Arizona. Researchers tracked a group of students from their fourth year of college to five years post-graduation. Participants were asked at three different points to self-report on financial behaviors such as spending, saving, budgeting and borrowing. Those who had good financial habits in their fourth year of college; or who show marked improvement in their habits over the course of the study, were more likely to see themselves as adults at the end of the study period, when they were 26 to 31 years old. On the flip side, those whose financial behaviors in college not as good; or did not improve over time, less likely to see themselves as having reached adulthood; five years after college. "We found that financial behaviors during that fourth year of college continue; to have positive implications for emerging adults more than half a decade later," said study co-author Melissa Curran, an associate professor in the UA's Norton School of Family and Consumer Sciences; in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Important role in young adults The research, published in the Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology; is based on data collected at three different time points over a six-year period, starting with students' fourth year; of college in 2010 and five years post-college in 2016. All of the participants originally UA students. Although adult identity has traditionally measured by milestones like getting married; having children and achieving financial independence, for this study researchers measured participants' perceived; adult identity by asking them to rate, on a scale of 1 to 5, a series of statements; such as "I feel that I have matured fully." "However, they asked them to reflect on whether they think they have already reached adulthood; and whether others around them see and treat them as adults," said lead study author Xiaomin Li; a doctoral student in family studies and human development. It wasn't just the young adults' own financial behaviors that impacted whether or not they considered themselves adults. Study participants who reported that their romantic partners; had good financial habits also scored higher on measures of adult identity. But researchers focused only on individuals who are in romantic relationships; at each point of data collection, since research has shown that romantic partners play an increasingly important role; in young adults' financial well-being as they transition into adulthood. About 80% of participants married by the end of the study; and 20% had children. College-educated students "The emerging adults they focused on are at a special developmental phase; and in this period, they have the need for intimacy," Li said. "It's a stage when they become independent from the family but more dependent on their partner; so researchers need to regard intimate relationships' effects on development in this stage of emerging adulthood." Li and Curran—along with their collaborators at Beijing Normal University in China; the University of Minnesota and the University of Wisconsin identified; two possible pathways through which financial behaviors may impact adult identity formation. They found that those who practiced more responsible financial behaviors reported having fewer symptoms of depression and higher relationship satisfaction, both of which, in turn, seemed to promote the formation of adult identity. While the study focused on college-educated students, future research should consider;the implications of financial behavior on adult identity formation in non-college educated young adults, Li said. Meanwhile; given the role that financial behaviors seem to play in college students' adult identity formation, it may be beneficial for colleges to focus on financial education, Li said.

Sports And Physical Activity Are Helping Rehabilitate Young People

Young offenders locked in a secure unit are to be offered sports including orienteering and bush craft as part of a research project to see if challenging, fun activity can help turn lives around. Sports and physical activity are at the heart of the project aimed at helping rehabilitate young people held at Medway Secure Training Centre in Kent. The establishment, which holds around 70 young people age 13-18 either remand in custody awaiting sentence or convict of offenses, has team up with local adventure education provider Great Leaps and the University of Portsmouth on the pilot project. Up to 32 of the young offenders will be take part in a 16-week program of activities, including archery, caving, orienteering and bush craft, and the University's research team will assess the project's success in achieving a number of different positive outcomes. Sports and physical activity Dan Luker, Head of Regime at Medway STC, said: "The project is about education, leadership and coaching; the activities are in effect a 'hook.'" "What they're looking for is whether, through these activities, young people are able to make positive decisions, can become more self-sufficient, can communicate better, reduce their level of aggression and if they become more compliant with the behavior management system. "From the Centre's point of view it is about building better relationships amongst; so young people to engineer a broader community spirit, as well as better relationships between staff and young people." Jamie McConville, Founder and Managing Director of Great Leaps, added: "None of the young people have had these kinds of opportunities before. With funding in place it's an ideal chance to look at how we can help; so them change direction in their lives by challenging them, praising, showing empathy and having fun." McConville has experience of the criminal justice system in his youth; so before finding his calling as a leader, instructor and coach through the Royal Engineers; hence a homeless charity in London and the teaching profession. "For us it's about motivating the youngsters and helping them identify skillsets; so that they might not even know they have in terms of taking charge of an activity; listening to and communicating with adults appropriately; also transferring those skills back to their secure setting and post-release," he added. Leadership and responsibility The program follows on from the Sport England-fund Sports Club project; which launch by the Alliance of Sport in Criminal Justice in Medway and nearby HMP Cookham Wood. Weekly sessions, deliver by Fight For Peace and Charlton Athletic Community Trust (CACT), consist of coaching in boxing and football, personal development and mentoring. They had what one coach called an "inspiring" effect on young people. "They are hopeful we will see changes in their behaviors when they are give opportunities; so for leadership and responsibility, and we are keen to see how they respond to being outdoors in this kind of environment. "So they are also keen to see how the plan activities facilitate relationships between the young people. Uniquely, this project will not only assess how young people interact; hence with each other and with custodial staff, but also with education staff; also how they take their experiences and new skills back into the classroom." James Mapstone, Chief Executive of the Alliance of Sport in Criminal Justice, said: "They're delight to see this project build on the framework; also learning they establish with the Sports Club project in Medway STC. This new project will add more robust evidence for how to use sport and physical activity; so in secure settings most effectively and strengthen our case for sport in criminal justice even further. Academic assessment of the project; which will conclude in December and a final report will be available in the New Year.

Analyses Of EEG Recordings Provide Understanding Of Epileptic Seizures

The researches find that the statistical analyses of EEG recordings can improve our understanding of epileptic seizures. A statistical approach squeezes more detailed information out of a current method of measuring brain signals in epileptic seizures; adding new insight into how these signals originate and spread. Visual inspection of electroencephalography (EEG); recordings of epilepsy patients before and during a seizure is a fairly effective method;for detecting the part of the brain that can benefit from surgical treatment. But it's not sufficient for more challenging cases. Analyses of EEG recordings Now, an approach developed by KAUST biostatistician Hernando Ombao and colleagues Yuan Wang of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Moo K. Chung of the University of California, Irvine; digs deeper into the features of an EEG and can detect abnormalities in brain regions even before a seizure takes place. The method could provide a clinically useful tool for seizure localization, according to Chung and Wang. The approach stems from a field of mathematics that analyzes large and complex datasets by studying shape representations of the data and its interactions. Analyzing these shapes provides information on patterns that exist within the data. The team applied their method; known as a topological data analysis framework; to see what they could learn from an EEG recording conducted before and during an epileptic seizure. Large and complex datasets The statistical approach removes noise from the EEG recording, providing cleaner signals. A series of shapes are then drawn that directly relate to the signals in the recordings. The final pyramidal shapes (persistence landscapes); that represent the signals coming from each electrode placed on the scalp provide a good picture of where the seizure originates in the brain and how it spreads. The analysis of the patient's EEG recording showed that the seizure originated from a region in or around the electrodes measuring signals from the left temporal lobe of the brain. It then spread to the right temporal lobe. Further simulation studies showed that the test was robust and sensitive; even when the signal was buried under noise. "Epileptologists should enhance their toolboxes of data analysis by adding methods like this one that capture topological features as part of their assessment of seizure foci in more challenging cases of epilepsy;" says Ombao. The team next plans to test their framework on large samples of EEG recordings to clinically validate their findings. Ombao is also developing statistical methods to study the impact of shocks to the brain, such as in epilepsy or stroke, on the communication network between brain regions and nerve cell populations.

Risk Factors Associated With Inability To Return Home After Surgery

The researches find that the physiology and unique set of needs that may make them more vulnerable to complications following a surgical procedure. Therefore The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Geriatric Surgery Pilot Project has, for the first time; identified four factors in older patients that are associated with an inability to return home after an operation. Because The NSQIP Geriatric Surgery Pilot Project ;is unique in that it is the only specifically define data set focus on outcomes for older surgical patients. Geriatric Surgery Pilot In presenting study results at the ACS Quality and Safety Conference 2019; concluding today in Washington, DC; researchers reported on geriatric-specific conditions among Geriatric Pilot Project patients that were associated with not living at home 30 days after surgery. This information can help surgeons advise patients about the possible effects of a surgical procedure on their lifestyle as well as their clinical outcomes before an operation. It also may guide hospital quality improvement programs to address pre- and postoperative conditions that may keep elderly surgical patients from returning home soon afterward. When surgeons speak with older patients about the decision to operate; we discuss complication rates and the risk of mortality. We don't usually talk about whether they will have the independence they had beforehand. In this study; we looked at the NSQIP data set to find factors that influence whether patients are living at home or require support for their functional needs in some kind of facility; such as a nursing home; 30 days after surgery. Rates and the risk of mortality This information should help us make better preoperative decisions with our patients by allowing us to tell them about the impact a surgical procedure will have on their way of life." Study coauthor Ronnie Rosenthal, MD, FACS; co-principal investigator of the ACS-led Coalition for Quality in Geriatric Surgery (CQGS) and professor of surgery and geriatrics; Yale University School of Medicine; New Haven, CT. The NSQIP Geriatric Surgery Pilot Project is create in 2014 to measure and improve the quality of surgical care for older Americans. The project measures preoperative variables and outcome measures that specifically target elderly patients; reflect the quality of their surgical care; and identify interventions that may improve their treatment and well-being. "Hospitals may implement protocols that improve patient function or prevent postoperative problems that make it less likely for a patient to return home;" said study co-author Lindsey Zhang, MD, MS, John A. Hartford Foundation James C. Thompson Clinical Scholar in Residence at ACS, and a general surgery resident at the University of Chicago Medical Center.